Posts in the Web Category

Bookmarklet: Load All GitHub Comments

Published 2 weeks, 5 days past

What happened was, Brian and I were chatting about W3C GitHub issues and Brian mentioned how really long issues are annoying to search and read, because GitHub has this thing where if there are too many comments on an issue, it snips out the middle with a “Load more…” button that’s very tastefully designed and pretty easy to miss if you’re quick-scrolling to try to catch up.  The squiggle-line would be a good marker, if it weren’t so tasteful as to blend into the background in a way that makes the Baby WCAG cry.

And what’s worse, from this perspective, is that if the issue has been discussed to a very particular kind of death, the “Load more…” button can have more “Load more…” buttons hiding within.  So even if you know there was an interesting comment, and you remember a word or two of it, page-searching in your browser will do no good if the comment in question is buried one or more XMLHTTPRequest calls deep.

“I really wish GitHub had an ‘expand all comments’ button at the top or something,” Brian said (or words to that effect).

Well, it was a Friday afternoon and I was feeling code-hacky, so I wrote a bookmarklet.  Here it is in easy-to-save hyperlink form:

GitHub issue loader

It waits half a second after you activate it to find all the buttons on the page (in my test runs, usually six hundred of them).  Then it looks through all the buttons to find the ones that have a textContent of “Load more…” and dispatches a click event to each one.  With that done, it waits five seconds and does it all again, waits five seconds to do it again, and so on.  Once it finds there are zero buttons with the “Load more…” textContent, it exits.  And, if five seconds is too quick due to slow loading times, you can always invoke the bookmarklet again should you come across a “Load more…” button.

If you want this ability for yourself, just drag the link above into your bookmark toolbar or bookmarks menu, and whenever you load up a mega-thread GitHub issue, fire the bookmarklet to load all the comments.  I imagine there may be cleaner ways to do this, but I was able to codeslam this in about 15 minutes using ViolentMonkey on live GitHub pages, and it does the thing.

I did consider complexifying the ViolentMonkey script so that any GitHub page is scanned for the “Load more…” button, and if one is present, then a “Load all comments” button is plopped into the top of the page, but I knew that would take at least another 15 minutes and my codeslam window was closing.  Also, it would require anyone using it to run ViolentMonkey (or equivalent) all the time, whereas the bookmarlet has zero impact unless the user invokes it.  If you want to extend this into something more than it is and share your solution with the world, by all means feel free.

The point of all this being, if you too wish GitHub had an easy way to load all the comments without you having to search for the “Load more…” button yourself, now there’s a bookmarklet made just for you.  Enjoy!


Three Decades of HTML

Published 2 months, 2 weeks past

A few days ago was the 30th anniversary of the first time I wrote an HTML document.  Back in 1993, I took a Usenet posting of the “Incomplete Mystery Science Theater 3000 Episode Guide” and marked it up.  You can see the archived copy here on meyerweb.  At some point, the markup got updated for reasons I don’t remember, but I can guarantee you the original had uppercase tag names and I didn’t close any paragraphs.  That’s because I was using <P> as a shorthand for <BR><BR>, which was the style at the time.

Its last-updated date of December 3, 1993, is also the date I created it.  I was on lobby duty with the CWRU Film Society, and had lugged a laptop (I think it was an Apple PowerBook of some variety, something like a 180, borrowed from my workplace) and a printout of the HTML specification (or maybe it was “Tags in HTML”?) along with me.

I spent most of that evening in the lobby of Strosacker Auditorium, typing tags and doing find-and-replace operations in Microsoft Word, and then saving as text to a file that ended in .html, which was the style at the time.  By the end of the night, I had more or less what you see in the archived copy.

The only visual change between then and now is that a year or two later, when I put the file up in my home directory, I added the toolbars at the top and bottom of the page  —  toolbars I’d designed and made a layout standard as CWRU’s webmaster.  Which itself only happened because I learned HTML.

A couple of years ago, I was fortunate enough to be able to relate some of this story to Joel Hodgson himself.  The story delighted him, which delighted me, because delighting someone who has been a longtime hero really is one of life’s great joys.  And the fact that I got to have that conversation, to feel that joy, is inextricably rooted in my sitting in that lobby with that laptop and that printout and that Usenet post, adding tags and saving as text and hitting reload in Mosaic to instantly see the web page take shape, thirty years ago this week.


Memories of Molly

Published 5 months, 2 weeks past

The Web is a little bit darker today, a fair bit poorer: Molly Holzschlag is dead.  She lived hard, but I hope she died easy.  I am more sparing than most with my use of the word “friend”, and she was absolutely one.  To everyone.

If you don’t know her name, I’m sorry.  Too many didn’t.  She was one of the first web gurus, a title she adamantly rejected  —  “We’re all just people, people!”  —  but it fit nevertheless.  She was a groundbreaker, expanding and explaining the Web at its infancy.  So many people, on hearing the mournful news, have described her as a force of nature, and that’s a title she would have accepted with pride.  She was raucous, rambunctious, open-hearted, never ever close-mouthed, blazing with fire, and laughed (as she did everything) with her entire chest, constantly.  She was giving and took and she hurt and she wanted to heal everyone, all the time.  She was messily imperfect, would tell you so loudly and repeatedly, and gonzo in all the senses of that word.  Hunter S. Thompson should have written her obituary.

I could tell so many stories.  The time we were waiting to check into a hotel, talking about who knows what, and realized Little Richard was a few spots ahead of us in line.  Once he’d finished checking in, Molly walked right over to introduce herself and spend a few minutes talking with him.  An evening a group of us had dinner one the top floor of a building in Chiba City and I got the unexpectedly fresh shrimp hibachi.  The time she and I were chatting online about a talk or training gig, somehow got onto the subject of Nick Drake, and coordinated a playing of “ Three Hours” just to savor it together.  A night in San Francisco where the two of us went out for dinner before some conference or other, stopped at a bar just off Union Square so she could have a couple of drinks, and she got propositioned by the impressively drunk couple seated next to her after they’d failed to talk the two of us into hooking up.  The bartender couldn’t stop laughing.

Or the time a bunch of us were gathered in New Orleans (again, some conference or other) and went to dinner at a jazz club, where we ended up seated next to the live jazz trio and she sang along with some of the songs.  She had a voice like a blues singer in a cabaret, brassy and smoky and full of hard-won joys, and she used it to great effect standing in front of Bill Gates to harangue him about Internet Explorer.  She raised it to fight like hell for the Web and its users, for the foundational principles of universal access and accessible development.  She put her voice on paper in some three dozen books, and was working on yet another when she died.  In one book, she managed to sneak past the editors an example that used a stick-figure Kama Sutra custom font face.  She could never resist a prank, particularly a bawdy one, as long as it didn’t hurt anyone.

She made the trek to Cleveland at least once to attend and be part of the crew for one of our Bread and Soup parties.  We put her to work rolling tiny matzoh balls and she immediately made ribald jokes about it, laughing harder at our one-up jokes than she had at her own.  She stopped by the house a couple of other times over the years, when she was in town for consulting work, “Auntie Molly” to our eldest and one of my few colleagues to have spent any time with Rebecca.  Those pictures were lost, and I still keenly regret that.

There were so many things about what the Web became that she hated, that she’d spent so much time and energy fighting to avert, but she still loved it for what it could be and what it had been originally designed to be.  She took more than one fledgling web designer under her wing, boosted their skills and careers, and beamed with pride at their accomplishments.  She told a great story about one, I think it was Dunstan Orchard but I could be wrong, and his afternoon walk through a dry Arizona arroyo.

I could go on for pages, but I won’t; if this were a toast and she were here, she would have long ago heckled me (affectionately) into shutting up.  But if you have treasured memories of Molly, I’d love to hear them in the comments below, or on your own blog or social media or podcasts or anywhere.  She loved stories.  Tell hers.


First-Person Scrollers

Published 8 months, 6 days past

I’ve played a lot of video games over the years, and the thing that just utterly blows my mind about them is how every frame is painted from scratch.  So in a game running at 30 frames per second, everything in the scene has to be calculated and drawn every 33 milliseconds, no matter how little or much has changed from one frame to the next.  In modern games, users generally demand 60 frames per second.  So everything you see on-screen gets calculated, placed, colored, textured, shaded, and what-have-you in 16 milliseconds (or less).  And then, in the next 16 milliseconds (or less), it has to be done all over again.  And there are games that render the entire scene in single-digits numbers of milliseconds!

I mean, I’ve done some simple 3D render coding in my day.  I’ve done hobbyist video game development; see Gravity Wars, for example (which I really do need to get back to and make less user-hostile).  So you’d think I’d be used to this concept, but somehow, I just never get there.  My pre-DOS-era brain rebels at the idea that everything has to be recalculated from scratch every frame, and doubly so that such a thing can be done in such infinitesimal slivers of time.

So you can imagine how I feel about the fact that web browsers operate in exactly the same way, and with the same performance requirements.

Maybe this shouldn’t come as a surprise.  After all, we have user interactions and embedded videos and resizable windows and page scrolling and stuff like that, never mind CSS animations and DOM manipulation, so the viewport often needs to be re-rendered to reflect the current state of things.  And to make all that feel smooth like butter, browser engines have to be able to display web pages at a minimum of 60 frames per second.

Admittedly, this would be a popular UI for browsing social media.

This demand touches absolutely everything, and shapes the evolution of web technologies in ways I don’t think we fully appreciate.  You want to add a new selector type?  It has to be performant.  This is what blocked :has() (and similar proposals) for such a long time.  It wasn’t difficult to figure out how to select ancestor elements — it was very difficult to figure out how to do it really, really fast, so as not to lower typical rendering speed below that magic 60fps.  The same logic applies to new features like view transitions, or new filter functions, or element exclusions, or whatever you might dream up.  No matter how cool the idea, if it bogs rendering down too much, it’s a non-starter.

I should note that none of this is to say it’s impossible to get a browser below 60fps: pile on enough computationally expensive operations and you’ll still jank like crazy.  It’s more that the goal is to keep any new feature from dragging rendering performance down too far in reasonable situations, both alone and in combination with already-existing features.  What constitutes “down too far” and “reasonable situations” is honestly a little opaque, but that’s a conversation slash vigorous debate for another time.

I’m sure the people who’ve worked on browser engines have fascinating stories about what they do internally to safeguard rendering speed, and ideas they’ve had to spike because they were performance killers.  I would love to hear those stories, if any BigCo devrel teams are looking for podcast ideas, or would like to guest on Igalia Chats. (We’d love to have you on!)

Anyway, the point I’m making is that performance isn’t just a matter of low asset sizes and script tuning and server efficiency.  It’s also a question of the engine’s ability to redraw the contents of the viewport, no matter what changes for whatever reason, with reasonable anticipation of things that might affect the rendering, every 15 milliseconds, over and over and over and over and over again, just so we can scroll our web pages smoothly.  It’s kind of bananas, and yet, it also makes sense.  Welcome to the web.


Styling a ‘pre’ That Contains a ‘code’

Published 1 year, 1 month past

I’ve just committed my first :has() selector to production CSS and want to share it, so I will!  But first, a little context that will feel familiar to nerds like me who post snippets of computer code to the Web, and have markup with this kind of tree structure (not raw source; we’d never allow this much formatting whitespace inside a <pre>):

<pre>
	<code>
		{{content goes here}}
	</code>
</pre>

It’s nicely semantic, indicating that the contents of the <pre> are in fact code of some kind, as opposed to just plain preformatted text like, say, output from a shell script or npm job, which isn’t code and thus should, perhaps, be styled in a distinct way.

Given cases like that, you’ve probably written rules that go a little something like this:

pre > code {
	display: block;
	background: #f1f1f1;
	padding: 1.33em;
	border-radius: 0.33em;
}

Which says: if a <code> element is the child of a <pre> element, then turn the <code> into a block box and give it some background color, padding, etc.

It works out fine, but it always feels a little fragile.  What if there are already <pre> styles that throw off the intended effect on code blocks?  Do we get into specificity wars between those rules and the code-block rules?  Find other ways to figure out what should be adjusted in which cases?  Those are probably manageable problems, but it would be better not to have them.

It’s also, when you step back for a moment, a little weird.  The <pre> is already a block box and the container for the code; why aren’t we styling that?  Because unless you wrote some scripting, whether server-side or client-side, to add a class to the <pre> in scenarios like this, there wasn’t a way to address it directly based on its structural contents.

There is now:

pre:has(> code) {
	background: #f1f1f1;
	padding: 1.33em;
	border-radius: 0.33em;
}

Now I’m styling any <pre> that has a <code> as a child, which is why I took out the display: block.  I don’t need it any more!

But suppose you have a framework or ancient script or something that inserts classed <span> elements between the <pre> and the <code>, like this:

<pre>
	<span class="pref">
		<code>
			{{content goes here}}
		</code>
	</span>
</pre>

First of all, ew, address the root problem here if at all possible.  But if that isn’t possible for whatever reason, you can still style the <pre> based on the presence of a <code> by removing the child combinator from the selector.  In other words:

pre:has(code) {
	background: #f1f1f1;
	padding: 1.33em;
	border-radius: 0.33em;
}

Now I’m styling any <pre> that has a <code> as a descendant  —  child, grandchild, great-great-great-great grandchild, whatever.

Which is not only more robust, it’s a lot more future-proof: even if some hot new front-end framework that sticks in <span> elements or something gets added to the site next year, this style will just keep chugging along, styling <pre> elements that contain <code> elements until long after that hot new framework has cooled to ash and been chucked into the bit-bucket.

There is one thing to keep in mind here, as pointed out by Emmanuel over on Mastodon: if you have a scenario where <pre> elements can contain child text nodes in addition to <code> blocks, the <pre> will still be styled in its entirely.  Consider:

<pre>
	{{some text is here}}
	<code>
		{{content goes here}}
	</code>
	{{or text is here}}
</pre>

pre:has(> code) and pre:has(code) will still match the <pre> element here, which means all of the text (both inside and outside the <code> elements)  will sit inside the light-gray box with the rounded corners.  If that’s fine for your use case, great!  If not, then don’t use :has() in this scenario, and stick with the pre > code {…} or pre code {…} approach of yore.  That will style just the <code> elements instead of the whole <pre>, as in the example at the beginning of this article.

As I write this, the code hasn’t gone into production on wpewebkit.org yet, but I think it will within the next week or two, and will be my first wide-production use of :has().  I feel like it’s a great way to close out 2022 and kick off 2023, because I am that kind of nerd.  If you are too, I hope you enjoyed this quick dive into the world of :has().


How to Verify Site Ownership on Mastodon Profiles

Published 1 year, 2 months past

Like many of you, I’ve been checking out Mastodon and finding more and more things I like.  Including the use of XFN (XHTML Friends Network) semantics to verify ownership of sites you link from your profile’s metadata!  What that means is, you can add up to four links in your profile, and if you have an XFN-compliant link on that URL pointing to your Mastodon profile, it will show up as verified as actually being your site.

Okay, that probably also comes off a little confusing.  Let me walk through the process.

First, go to your home Mastodon server and edit your profile.  On servers like mastodon.social, there should be an “Edit profile” link under your user avatar.

Here’s what it looks like for me.  Yes, I prefer Light Mode.  No, I don’t want to have a debate about it.

I saw the same thing on another Mastodon server where I have an account, so it seems to be common to Mastodon in general.  I can’t know what every Mastodon server does, though, so you might have to root around to find how you edit your profile.  (Similarly, I can’t be sure that everything will be exactly as I depict it below, but hopefully it will be at least reasonably close.)

Under “Appearance” in the profile editing screen, which I believe is the default profile editing page, there should be a section called “Profile metadata”.  You’ll probably have to scroll a bit to reach it.  You can add up to four labels with content, and a very common label is “Web” or “Homepage” with the URL of your personal server.  They don’t all have to be links to sites; you could add your favorite color or relationship preference(s) or whatever

I filled a couple of these in for demonstration purposes, but now they’re officially part of my profile.  No, I don’t want to debate indentation preferences, either.

But look, over there next to the table, there’s a “Verification” section, with a little bit of explanation and a field containing some markup you can copy, but it’s cut off before the end of the markup.  Here’s what mine looks like in full:

<a rel="me" href="https://mastodon.social/@Meyerweb">Mastodon</a>

If I take this markup and add it to any URL I list in my metadata, then that entry in my metadata table will get special treatment, because it will mean I’ve verified it.

The important part is the rel="me", which establishes a shared identity.  Here’s how it’s (partially) described by XFN 1.1:

A link to yourself at a different URL. Exclusive of all other XFN values. Required symmetric.

I admit, that’s written in terse spec-speak, so let’s see how this works out in practice.

First, let’s look at the markup in my Mastodon profile’s page.  Any link to another site in the table of profile metadata has a me value in the rel attribute, like so:

<a href="https://meyerweb.com/" rel="nofollow noopener noreferrer me">

That means I’ve claimed via Mastodon that meyerweb.com is me at another URL.

But that’s not enough, because I could point at the home page of, say, Wikipedia as if it were mine.  That’s why XFN requires the relationship to be symmetric, which is to say, there needs to be a rel="me" annotated link on each end.  (On both ends.  However you want to say that.)

So on the page being pointed to, which in my case is https://meyerweb.com/, I need to include a link back to my Mastodon profile page, and that link also has to have rel="me".  That’s the markup Mastodon provided for me to copy, which we saw before and I’ll repeat here:

<a rel="me" href="https://mastodon.social/@Meyerweb">Mastodon</a>

Again, the important part is that the href points to my Mastodon profile page, and there’s a rel attribute containing me.  It can contain other things, like noreferrer, but needs to have me for the verfiication to work.  Note that the content of the link element doesn’t have to be the text “Mastodon”.  In my case, I’m using a Mastodon logo, with the markup looking like this:

<a rel="me" href="https://mastodon.social/@Meyerweb">
 	<img src="/pix/icons/mastodon.svg" alt="Mastodon">
</a>

With that in place, there’s a “me” link pointing to a page that contains a “me” link.  That’s a symmetric relationship, as XFN requires, and it verifies that the two pages have a shared owner.  Who is me!

Thus, if you go to my Mastodon profile page, in the table of my profile metadata, the entry for my homepage is specially styled to indicate it’s been verified as actually belonging to me.

The table as it appears on my profile page for me.  Your colors may vary.

And that’s how it works.

Next question: how can I verify my GitHub page?  At the moment, I’d have to put my Mastodon profile page’s URL into the one open field for URLs in GitHub profiles, because GitHub also does the rel="me" thing for its profile links.  But if I do that, I’d have to remove the link to my homepage, which I don’t want to do.

Until GitHub either provides a dedicated Mastodon profile field the way it provides a dedicated Twitter profile field, or else allows people to add multiple URLs to their profiles the way Mastodon does, I won’t be able to verify my GitHub page on Mastodon.  Not a huge deal for me, personally, but in general it would be nice to see GitHub become more flexible in this area.  Very smart people are also asking for this, so hopefully that will happen soon(ish).


Masked Gradient Dashed Lines

Published 1 year, 3 months past

I talked in my last post about how I used linear gradients to recreate dashed lines for the navlinks and navbar of wpewebkit.org, but that wasn’t the last instance of dashing gradients in the design.  I had occasion to use that technique again, except this time as a way to create a gradient dash.  I mean, a dashed line that has a visible gradient from one color to another, as well as a dashed line that’s constructed using a linear gradient.  Only this time, the dashed gradient is used to create the gaps, not the dashes.

To set the stage, here’s the bit of the design I had to create:

Design!

The vertical dashed line down the left side of the design is a dashed linear gradient, but that’s not actually relevant.  It could have been a dashed border style, or an SVG, or really anything.  And that image on the right is a PNG, but that’s also not really relevant.  What’s relevant is I had to make sure the image was centered in the content column, and yet its dashed line connected to the left-side dashed line, regardless of where the image landed in the actual content.

Furthermore, the colors of the two dashed lines were different at the point I was doing the implementation: the left-side line was flat black, and the line in the image was more of a dark gray.  I could have just connected a dark gray line to the black, but it didn’t look right.  A color transition was needed, while still being a dashed line.

Ideally, I was looking for a solution that would allow a smooth color fade over the connecting line’s length while also allowing the page background color to show through.  Because the page background might sometimes be white and sometimes be a light blue and might in the future be lime green wavy pattern or something, who knows.

So I used a dashed linear gradient as a mask.  The CSS goes like this:

.banner::before {
	content: '';
	position: absolute;
	top: 50%;
	left: -5rem;
	width: 5rem;
	height: 1px;
	background: linear-gradient(90deg, #222, #888);
	mask-image: repeating-linear-gradient(
		270deg, transparent, #999 1px 3px, transparent 4px 7px);
}

Please allow me to break it down a step at a time.

First, there’s the positioning of the pseudo-element, reaching leftward 5rem from the left edge of the content column, which here I’ve annotated with a red outline. (I prefer outlines to borders because outlines don’t participate in layout, so they can’t shift things around.)

.banner::before {
	content: '';
	position: absolute;
	top: 50%;
	left: -5rem;
	width: 5rem;
	height: 1px;
}
The very skinny-short red box is where the connecting line needs to be drawn.

To that pseudo-element, I added a 90-degree-pointing linear gradient from black to gray to its background.

	…
	background: linear-gradient(90deg, #222, #888);
}
The gradient filling the entire background of the pseudo-element.

The pseudo-element does happen to touch the end of one of the vertical dashes, but that’s purely by coincidence.  It could have landed anywhere, including between two dashes.

So now it was time for a mask.  CSS Masks are images used to hide parts of an element based on the contents of the masking image, usually its alpha channel. (Using luminosity to define transparency levels via the mask-mode property is also an option, but Chrome doesn’t support that as yet.)  For example, you can use small images to clip off the corners of an element.

In this case, I defined a repeating linear gradient because I knew what size the dashes should be, and I didn’t want to mess with mask-size and mask-repeat (ironically enough, as you’ll see in a bit).  This way, the mask is 100% the size of the element’s box, and I just need to repeat the gradient pattern however many times are necessary to cross the entire width of the element’s background.

Given the design constraints, I wanted the dash pattern to start from the right side, the one next to the image, and repeat leftward, to ensure that the dash pattern would look unbroken.  Thus I set its direction to be 270 degrees.  Here I’ll have it alternate between red and transparent, because the actual color used for the opaque parts of the mask doesn’t matter, only its opacity:

	…
	mask-image: repeating-linear-gradient(
		270deg, transparent, red 1px 3px, transparent 4px 7px);
}
The pseudo-element being masked over and over again to create a dashed line that allows the backdrop to show through.

The way the mask works, the transparent parts of the masking image cause the corresponding parts of the element to be transparent  —  to be clipped away, in effect.  The opaque parts, whatever color they actually have, cause the corresponding parts of the element to be drawn.  Thus, the parts of the background’s black-to-gray gradient that line up with the opaque parts of the mask are rendered, and the rest of the gradient is not.  Thus, a color-fading dashed line.

This is actually why I separated the ends of the color stops by a pixel: by defining a one-pixel distance for the transition from transparent to opaque (and vice versa), the browser fills those pixels in with something partway between those two states.  It’s probably 50% opaque, but that’s really up to the browser.

The pixels of the repeating gradient pattern, shown here in the reading order of the CSS value.  In practice, this pattern is flipped horizontally, since its gradient arrow points to 270 degrees (leftward).

The result is a softening effect, which matches well with the dashed line in the image itself and doesn’t look out of place when it meets up with the left-hand vertical dashed line.

At least, everything I just showed you is what happens in Firefox, which proudly supports all the masking properties.  In Chromium and WebKit browsers, you need vendor prefixes for masking to work.  So here’s how the CSS turned out:

.banner::before {
	content: '';
	position: absolute;
	top: 50%;
	left: -5rem;
	width: 5rem;
	height: 1px;
	background: linear-gradient(90deg, #222, #888);
	-webkit-mask-image: repeating-linear-gradient(
		270deg, transparent, red 1px 3px, transparent 4px 7px);
	mask-image: repeating-linear-gradient(
		270deg, transparent, red 1px 3px, transparent 4px 7px);
}

And that’s where we were at launch.

It still bugged me a little, though, because the dashes I created were one pixel tall, but the dashes in the image weren’t.  They were more like a pixel and a half tall once you take the aliasing into account, so they probably started out 2 (or more)  pixels tall and then got scaled down.  The transition from those visually-slightly-larger dashes to the crisply-one-pixel-tall pseudo-element didn’t look quite right.

I’d hoped that just increasing the height of the pseudo-element to 2px would work, but that made the line look too thick.  That meant I’d have to basically recreate the aliasing myself.

At first I considered leaving the mask as it was and setting up two linear gradients, the existing one on the bottom and a lighter one on top.  Instead, I chose to keep the single background gradient and set up two masks, the original on the bottom and a more transparent one on top.  Which meant I’d have to size and place them, and keep them from tiling.  So, despite my earlier avoidance, I had to mess with mask sizing and repeating anyway.

mask-image:
	repeating-linear-gradient(
		270deg, transparent, #89A4 1px 3px, transparent 4px 7px),
	repeating-linear-gradient(
		270deg, transparent, #89A 1px 3px, transparent 4px 7px);
	mask-size: 100% 1px;
	mask-repeat: no-repeat;
	mask-position: 100% 0%, 100% 100%;
Two masks, one effect.

And that’s how it stands as of today.

In the end, this general technique is pretty much infinitely adaptable, in that you could define any dash pattern you like and have it repeat over a gradient, background image, or even just a plain background color.  It could be used to break up an element containing text, so it looks like the text has been projected onto a thick dashed line, or put some diagonal slashes through text, or an image, or a combination.

SLASHED TEXT
No PNG, no SVG, just text and CSS.

Or use a tiled radial gradient to make your own dotted line, one that’s fully responsive without ever clipping a dot partway through.  Wacky line patterns with tiled, repeated conic gradients?  Sure, why not?

The point being, masks let you break up the rectangularity of elements, which can go a long way toward making designs feel more alive.  Give ’em a try and see what you come up with!


A Dashing Navbar Solution

Published 1 year, 4 months past

One of the many things Igalia does is maintain an official port of WebKit for embedded devices called WPE WebKit, and as you might expect, it has a web site.  The design had gotten a little stale since its launch a few years ago, so we asked Denis Radenković at 38one to come up with a new design, which we launched yesterday.  And I got to turn it into HTML and CSS!  Which was mostly normal stuff, margins and font sizing and all that, but also had some bits that called for some creativity.

There was one aspect of the design that I honestly thought wasn’t going to be possible, which was the way the “current page” link in the site navbar connected up to the rest of the page’s design via a dashed line. You can see it on the site, or in this animation about how each navlink was designed to appear.

Navigation link styles, not including the Home button, which is essentially the same but not nearly as obvious because of its specific layout.

I thought about using bog-standard dashed element borders: one on a filler element or pseudo-element that spanned the mostly-empty left side of the navbar, and one on each navlink before the current one, and then… I don’t know. I didn’t get that far, because I realized the dashed borders would almost certainly stutter, visually. What I mean is, the dashes wouldn’t follow a regular on-off pattern, which would look fairly broken.

My next thought was to figure out how to size a filler element or pseudo-element so that it was the exact width needed to reach the middle of the active navlink. Maybe there’s a clever way to do that with just HTML and CSS, but I couldn’t think of a way to do it that wasn’t either structurally nauseating or dependent on me writing clever JavaScript. So I tossed that idea, though I’ll return to it at the end of the post.

In the end, it was the interim development styles that eventually got me there. See, while building out other parts of the design, I just threw a dashed border on the bottom of the navbar, which (as is the way of borders) spanned its entire bottom edge. At some point I glanced up at it and thought, If only I could figure out a mask that would clip off the part of the border I don’t need. And slowly, I realized that with a little coding sleight-of-hand, I could almost exactly do that.

First, I removed the bottom border from the navbar and replaced it with a dashed linear gradient background, like this:

nav.global {
	background-image: linear-gradient(
		90deg,
		currentColor 25%,
		transparent 25% 75%,
		currentColor 75%
	);
	background-position: 0 100%;
	background-size: 8px 1px;
	background-repeat: repeat-x;
}

(Okay, I actually used the background shorthand form of the above — linear-gradient(…) 0 100% / 8px 1px repeat-x — but the result is the same.)

I thought about using repeating-linear-gradient, which would have let me skip having to declare a background-repeat, but would have required me to size the gradient’s color stops using length units instead of percentages. I liked how, with the above, I could set the color stops with percentages, and then experiment with the size of the image using background-size. (7px 1px? 9px 1px? 8px 1.33px? Tried ’em all, and then some.) But that’s mostly a personal preference, not based in any obvious performance or clarity win, so if you want to try this with a repeating gradient, go for it.

But wait. What was the point of recreating the border’s built-in dash effect with a gradient background? Well, as I said, it made it easier to experiment with different sizes. It also allowed me to create a dash pattern that would be very consistent across browsers, which border-style dashes very much are not.

But primarily, I wanted the dashes to be in the background of the navbar because I could then add small solid-color gradients to the backgrounds of the navlinks that come after the active one.

nav.global li.currentPage ~ li {
	background: linear-gradient(0deg, #FFF 2px, transparent 2px);
}

That selects all the following-sibling list items of the currentPage-classed list item, which here is the “Learn & Discover” link.

<ul class="about off">
	<li><a class="nav-link" href="…">Home</a></li>
	<li class="currentPage"><a class="nav-link" href="…">Learn &amp; Discover</a></li>
	<li><a class="nav-link" href="…">Blog</a></li>
	<li><a class="nav-link" href="…">Developers</a></li>
	<li><a class="btn cta" href="…">Get Started</a></li>
</ul>

Here’s the result, with the gradient set to be visible with a pinkish fill instead of #FFF so we can see it:

The “masking” gradients, here set to be a nicely rosy pink instead of the usual solid white.

You can see how the pink hides the dashes. In the actual styles, because the #FFF is the same as the design’s page background, those list items’ background gradients are placed over top of (and thus hide) the navbar’s background dash.

I should point out that the color stop on the white solid gradient could have been at 1px rather than 2px and still worked, but I decided to give myself a little bit of extra coverage, just for peace of mind. I should also point out that I didn’t just fill the backgrounds of the list items with background-color: #FFF because the navbar has a semitransparent white background fill and a blurring background-filter, so the page content can be hazily visible through the navbar, as shown here.

The backdrop-blurring of content behind the navbar, not blurring nearly as much as I thought they should, but oh well.

The white line is slightly suboptimal in this situation, but it doesn’t really stand out and does add a tiny bit of visual accent to the navbar’s edge, so I was willing to go with it.

The next step was a little trickier: there needs to be a vertical dashed line “connecting” to the navbar’s dashed line at the horizontal center of the link, and also the navbar’s dashed line needs to be hidden, but only to the right of the vertical dashed line. I thought about doing two background gradients on the list item, one for the vertical dashed line and one for the white “mask”, but I realized that constraining the vertical dashed line to be half the height of the list item while also getting the repeating pattern correct was too much for my brain to figure out.

Instead, I positioned and sized a generated pseudo-element like this:

nav.global ul li.currentPage {
	position: relative;
}
nav.global ul li.currentPage::before {
	content: '';
	position: absolute;
	z-index: 1;
	top: 50%;
	bottom: 0;
	left: 50%;
	right: 0;
	background:
		linear-gradient(180deg,
			currentColor 25%,
			transparent 25% 75%, 
			currentColor 75%) 0 0 / 1px 8px repeat-y, 
		linear-gradient(0deg, #FFFF 2px, transparent 2px);
	background-size: 1px 0.5em, auto;
}

That has the generated pseudo-element fill the bottom right quadrant of the active link’s list item, with a vertical dashed linear gradient running along its left edge and a solid white two-pixel gradient along its bottom edge, with the solid white below the vertical dash. Here it is, with the background pinkishly filled in to be visible behind the two gradients.

That’s the ::before with its background filled in a rosy pink instead of the usual transparency.

With that handled, the last step was to add the dash across the bottom of the current-page link and then mask the vertical line with a background color, like so:

nav.global ul li.currentPage a {
	position: relative;
	z-index: 2;
	background: var(--dashH); /* converted the dashes to variables */
	background-size: 0.5em 1px;
	background-position: 50% 100%;
	background-color: #FFF;
}

And that was it. Now, any of the navbar links can be flagged as the current page (with a class of currentPage on the enclosing list item) and will automatically link up with the dashes across the bottom of the navbar, with the remainder of that navbar dash hidden by the various solid white gradient background images.

An animation of the link styles, only now you know how they work.

So, it’s kind of a hack, and I wish there were a cleaner way to do this. And maybe there is! I pondered setting up a fine-grained grid and adding an SVG with a dashed path, or maybe a filler <span>, to join the current link to the line. That also feels like a hack, but maybe less of one. Or maybe not!

What I believe I want are the capabilities promised by the Anchored Positioning proposal. I think I could have done something like:

nav.global {position: relative;}
nav.global .currentPage {anchor-name: --navLink;}
nav.global::before {
	position: absolute;
	left: 0;
	bottom: 0;
	right: var(--center);
	--center: anchor(--navLink 50%);
	top: anchor(--navLink bottom);
}

…and then used that to run the dashed line over from the left side of the page to underneath the midpoint of the current link, and then up to the bottom edge of that link. Which would have done away with the need for the li ~ li overlaid-background hack, and nearly all the other hackery. I mean, I enjoy hackery as much as the next codemonaut, but I’m happier when the hacks are more elegant and minimal.


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